Any cat or dog owner will tell you that their pet has an individual personali...

作者: tihaiku 人气: - 评论: 0
问题 Any cat or dog owner will tell you that their pet has an individual personality, different from other people's pets. But recent research has indicated that different types of personalities are found amongst a far wider range of species than was previously supposed, including not only mammals, but also birds and fish. (31)Different animals within the same species might show different degrees of readiness to explore unknown territory, but this was just a response to the availability of food or potential mates. If an animal was lucky enough to be in a place where food was plentiful, it would not venture far, whereas in a different environment, it would develop a bolder personality. One early piece of research to question this was published by Huntingford in 1976. She noticed that sticklebacks often displayed the same degree of aggression or sociability towards others in their group at all stages in their life cycle. Such factors as whether they were seeking mates did not affect their behaviour. This seemed to imply that some sticklebacks were more bold and others less so, not because of their circumstances or a predictable stage in their life but because of something more mysterious called ‘personality' they were simply made like that. (32) In the case of ants, individuals follow different developmental paths so that they take on different roles within the colony, such as soldiers or workers. In some species of insects, an individual may even change its function over time, as in bees, some of whom start out as workers and later become food hunters. But these kind of roles are not the same as personality. They exist within a large social organism so that it runs smoothly. Personality, on the other hand, is not aimed at maintaining any kind of larger whole. (33) Different traits have both good and bad consequences,so there is no reason why evolution should favour one over another. Bolder individuals do better when it comes to searching for food but they are also more likely to be eaten by a predator. They may have more success in attracting mates but they are also more likely to fight with rivals and be injured. (34) For example, studies show that in the case of birds, adventurous individuals are also likely to be less effective at parenting and that their offspring are less likely to reach maturity, a further instance of how personality traits may work against the preservation of the species. In one study of sheep by Denis Reale, it was found that the male animals who showed more aggression reproduced earlier in life whereas the less aggressive ones bred later. At the same time, the first group tended to die at a younger age. The more docile rams did not start breeding until later, but they generally lived longer, so in the end they produced the same number of young as their more aggressive peers. (35) One theory is that all personality traits arise from a choice between a small number of fundamental preferences, such as whether an animal tends to seek or avoid risk. It is an open question too, as to what extent these choices might be the same for human personalities. Questions 31—35 Complete the passage with the following sentences.There are two extra sentences that you do not need to use. A.How exactly these complex syndromes come about is difficult to determine. B.The presence of one trait will often go hand in hand with another, creating clusters of traits known in psychology as behavioural syndromes. C.It was formally believed that if behaviour varied between members of the same species, this was the result of adaptation to different circumstances. D.A reference to the theory is that personality traits are the result of differences in environment. E.Of course, there can be other reasons besides personality or environment which cause members of the same species to act differently. F.Possible dangers associated with boldness indicate a personality trait. G.Personality differences are difficult to explain from an evolutionary point of view.
选项 33.( )
解析 33.G【解析】G项的意思是“性格差异很难从进化的角度来解释。”空格处后面提到“不同的特征会有好坏之分,所以进化没有理由会偏袒任何一个人。”因此,空格处应与进化有关,G项符合条件,故选G。


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